A First Party Special Needs Trust is set up for the benefit of a person with special needs, and is funded with the disabled person’s own property. Different rules apply when a Third Party SNT that is set up by family members for the benefit of the disabled person. Typically, a First Party SNT is used in two common scenarios: the disabled person receives a lawsuit settlement for damages, or when the disabled person inherits money or property from family, who did not set up a Third Party SNT. 
When a disabled person owns property outright, the person may face difficulty receiving government benefits. This is where a First Party SNT comes in; it allows the disabled person to have access to their property, while the trust retains ownership of it, which improves the disabled person’s ability to receive government funding. When formed properly, the First Party SNT is a useful vehicle for ensuring proper care for a person with special needs. 

Although every state has different rules that must be met when forming a First Party SNT, the requirements are generally:
The trust is irrevocable
The trust is set up by a parent or guardian in court
The beneficiary of the trust is under the age of 65
The assets in the trust must have been owned by the beneficiary
Benefits received through Medicaid must be repaid after the beneficiary passes away

Proper planning is essential to ensure that all of these requirements are met and that the First Party SNT operates effectively. If the First Party SNT is not formed properly, there may be several problematic issues that arise. One of the worst problems is the disabled person losing their governmental benefits, like SSI or Medicaid. This can result as a flaw in formation or in improper management by the trustee of the SNT. Proper planning is also essential to avoid issues with Medicaid repayment after the death of the beneficiary. When formed correctly, the assets of the trust will be used to repay the costs of Medicaid. However, if the trust is not formed or managed correctly, repayment can be an unnecessary burden on the beneficiary’s estate. Likewise, the trustee of the First Party SNT may face personal liability if the funds were not managed or accounted for properly. All of these consequences can be mistakes of poor planning and management of the First Party SNT. 
If you or a member of your family has special needs and will be receiving money from a lawsuit for damages, or inheriting money from your family, who have not set up a Third Party SNT, please contact Bill Hesch, attorney, CPA and financial planner for a second opinion to avoid the common mistakes that are typically made, due to lack of proper planning. 

Bill Hesch is a CPA, PFS (Personal Financial Specialist), and attorney licensed in Ohio and Kentucky who helps clients with their financial and estate planning. He also practices elder law, corporate law, Medicaid planning, tax law, and probate in the Greater Cincinnati and Northern Kentucky areas. His practice area includes Hamilton, Butler, Warren and Clermont counties in Ohio, and Campbell, Kenton and Boone counties in Kentucky.
(Legal Disclaimer: Bill Hesch submits this blog to provide general information about the firm and its services. Information in this blog is not intended as legal advice, and any person receiving information on this page should not act on it without consulting professional legal counsel. While at times Bill Hesch may render an opinion, Bill Hesch does not offer legal advice through this blog. Bill Hesch does not enter into an attorney-client relationship with any online reader via online contact.)